Information and knowledge: an evolutionary framework for information science

Article Bates, M.J. (2005). Information and knowledge: An evolutionary framework for information science. Information Research, 10(4). Information 1 is defined as the pattern of organization of matter and energy. Information 2 is defined as some pattern of organization of matter and energy that has been given meaning by a living being. Knowledge is defined as information given meaning and integrated with other contents of understanding.   Conclusion: Thus, rather than being reductionist, the approach taken demonstrates the fundamentally emergent nature of most of what higher animals and human beings, in particular, experience as information.