Article Snyder, J. (2014). Visual representation of information as communicative practice. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 65(11), 2233-2247. A qualitative study that examined face-to-face conversations involving the creation of ad hoc visualizations (napkin drawings).Findings show patterns in communicative activities associated with the visual representation of information. Furthermore, the activity of mark making contributes to the maintenance of conversational involvement in ways that are not always evident in the drawn artifact. This research has implications for the design and evaluation of visually enabled virtual collaboration environments, visual information extraction and retrieval systems, and data visualization tools.